Let Qu'ran be your guide and your guide will be your guardian and defender.
Society and the State


Each society has a way of life with a political system of government that regulates, and sadly most often it has a life of its own. Contrary to other system of governments, in Islam there is no difference between Politics and Religion, they are one and the same. Islam is a '' religion that is the way of life for Muslims '', without exceptions or favours to the dismay of the persons who desire corruption or personal power.

The unchanged Political Islam
then and now.

Below are some extracts that illustrate the political aspirations and makeup of the Islamic state, founded on guidance and not on man's whims or desire for power over other men. A just society where unforgiving personal responsibility is paramount, where the impersonal foundation of what is fair and equitable for all parties is not allowed to be altered. Should Allah, the Creator of all that is make any changes, the unforgiving personal responsibility would still remain equitable for all parties.
Putting it bluntly, the world and all creation does not belong to man, it belongs to Allah who determines what is to be determined.

Read some of the TREATIES, PACTS AND AGREEMENTS entered into by the Holy Prophet Muhammad with the various parties, which exemplify the applied principles of Political Islam for the benefit of all communities. Any errors in the text are incidental and solely mine. (A.C.)
Political Theory    and     Concept of State .        The Madina treaty    the basis for a State

Pacts and treaties    I            Pacts and treaties    II      and letters to    Emperors and kings

Pacts and treaties III,      Copy of a    Letter

Muhammad the Prophet of Allah.    The Sermon delivered during Hajj and the farewell Sermon



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exert from :
POLITICAL THEORY OF ISLAM By S.Abul A'la Maududi ( 1960 )

THE CORRECT APPROACH
With certain people it has become a sort of fashion to somehow identify Islam with one or the other system of life in vogue at the time. So at this time also there are people who say that Islam is a democracy, and by this they mean to imply that there is no difference between Islam and the democracy as in vogue in the West. Some others suggest that Communism is but the latest and revised version of Islam and it is in the fitness of things that, Muslims imitate the Communist experiment of Soviet Russia. Still some others whisper that Islam has the elements of dictatorship in it and we should review the cult of 'obedience to the Amir' (the leader). All these people, in their misinformed and misguided zeal to serve what that they hold to be the cause of Islam, are always at great pains to prove that Islam contains within itself the elements of all types of contemporary social and political thought and action. Most of the people who indulge in this prattle have no clear idea of the Islamic way of life. They have never made nor try to make a systematic study of the Islamic political order the place and nature of democracy, social justice and equality in it. Instead they behave like the proverbial blind men who gave altogether contradictory descriptions of an elephant because one had been able to touch only its tail, the other its leg, the third its belly and the fourth its ears only. Or perhaps they look upon Islam as an orphan whose sole hope for survival lies in winning the patronage and the sheltering care of some dominant creed. That is why some people have begun to present apologies on Islam's behalf. As a matter of fact this attitude emerges from am inferiority complex, from the belief that we as Muslims can earn no honour or respect unless we are ably to show that our religion resembles the modern creeds, and it is in agreement with most of the contemporary ideologies. These people have done a great disservice to Islam, they have reduced the political theory of Islam to a puzzle, a hotch-potch.
They have turned Islam into a juggler's bag out of which can be produced anything that holds a demand ! Such is the intellectual plight in which we are engulfed. Perhaps it is a result of this sorry state of affairs that some people have even begun to say that Islam has no political or economic system of its own and anything can fit into its scheme.
In these circumstances it has become essential that a careful study of the political theory of Islam should be made in a scientific way, with a view to grasp its real meaning, nature, purpose and significance. Such a systematic study alone can put an end to this confusion of thought, and silence those who out of ignorance proclaim that there is nothing like Islamic political theory, Islamic social order and Islamic culture: I hope it will also bring to the world groping in darkness the light that it urgently needs, although it is not yet completely conscious of such a need.

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exert from :
ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF STATE by Mr. Justice Hamoodur Rehman (1978)
Former Chief Justice. Supreme Court of Pakistan
.
page 6. The main characteristics of the Islamic State was...

      (i) That it was an institution established through a democratic process, viz. the free will and accord of the people desiring to form the same and to accept the Holy Prophet as the Paramount Authority. (Pledge of Aqaba and Agreement with the Jews).
      (ii) That it was a constitutional organization functioning under a written Charter. (of Madina).
      (iii) That it was a federal structure comprising two communities the Muslims and Non-Muslims and not two territories.
      (iv) That it was an ideological State based on the concepts and fundamental principles embodied in the Holy Quran.

(i) Sovereignty: The concept of human sovereignty was completely absent in the political philosophy of Islam.

(a) That all are equal before the law.
(b) That the exercise of power is a trust.
(c) That power has to be exercised in accordance with the commandments of Allah and in His name.
(d) That everyone vested with power is accountable for his actions.


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exert from :
LETTERS OF THE HOLY PROPHET by Sultan Ahmed Qureshi (1986)

TREATIES, PACTS AND AGREEMENTS
1. THE TREATY OF MADINA
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

      1. This agreement of Allah's Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) shall apply to the migrants, Quraish, the citizens of Yasrib (Madina) who have accepted Islam and all such people who are in agreement with the above mentioned bodies and side with them in war.

      2. Those who are a party to this agreement shall be treated as a body separate from all those who are not a party to this agreement.

      3. The Quraish migrants are in themselves a party and as in the past; shall be responsible for the payment of blood money on behalf of their criminals and shall themselves get their prisoners freed, after the payment of ransom. All this process shall be in accordance with the principles of belief (Iman) and justice.

      4. Bani Auf shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      5. Bani Al Haris shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      6. Bani Sa`ida shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money, in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      7. Bani Jusham shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money, in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      8. Bani An-Najjar shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      9. Bani Amr shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      10. Bani Al Wabiyyat shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money, in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      11. Bani Al-Aus shall be responsible for their own tribe and shall jointly pay their blood-money in accordance with article 3 and shall themselves be responsible for getting their prisoners freed after paying ransom. All this work shall be completed in conformity with the principle of honesty and justice.

      12. If from amongst the Muslims, an indigent person is guilty of an offence in which blood-money becomes due or he is taken prisoner and is unable to pay ransom; it shall be incumbent on other Muslims to pay blood-money or ransom on his behalf and get him freed, in order that virtue and sympathy in the mutual relationship of the Muslims may be created.

      13. No Muslim shall be hostile to the slave set free by another Muslim.

      14. It shall be the duty of the Muslims to oppose openly every such person as creates mischief and riot and troubles human beings or forcibly wants to grab something and resorts to oppression. All the Muslims shall remain mutually united in punishing such a person even if he is the son of anyone of them.

      15. No Muslim shall have the right of killing another Muslim in exchange of a nonbeliever (who is at war) or assist a person who is at war with the Muslims.

      16. The promise of Allah, responsibility and protection are all one and the same. This means that if a Muslim gives refuge to someone, it shall be incumbent on all Muslims to honour it; although the Muslim providing the refuge may be a plebeian ( poor person ). All the Muslims are brethren amongst themselves, as compared to others.

      17. It is incumbent on ail the Muslims to help and extend sympathetic treatment to the Jews who have entered into an agreement with us. Neither an oppression of any type should be perpetrated on them nor should their enemy be helped against them.

      18. The truce of all the Muslims shall be one. When there is a war in the way of Allah, none of the Muslims leaving aside other Muslims, shall enter into a peace treaty with an enemy, unless the treaty is one and the same for all the Muslims.

      19. All the groups who participate in war along with us, shall be afforded an opportunity to rest by turns.

      20. The provision of subsistence to the dependants of the Muslim who get martyred in the way of Allah, shall be the responsibility of all the Muslims.

      21. No doubt all the Allah-fearing and devout Muslims are on the right path and are the followers of the best way of life.

      22. Neither shall any non-Muslim who is a party to this agreement, provide refuge to the life and property of any Quraish nor shall assist any non-Muslim against a Muslim.

      23. If someone murders a Muslim and there is a proof against him, the murderer shall be punished. But if the next of kin is prepared to accept blood-money, the murderer could be set free after the payment of blood-money. It shall be obligatory on all the Muslims to observe this injunction without any exception. Nothing other than the prescribed injunctions shall be acceptable.

      24. For a Muslim, who after accepting the treaty has agreed to abide by it and he believes in Allah and the Day of Judgment, it would neither be permissible to create a new thing or practice, nor would it be right for him to have dealings with such a person as does not respect this treaty. Whoever infringes this injunction, the curse and wrath of Allah shall descend on him on the Day of Judgment, and no excuse and request for forgiveness shall be accepted from him in this respect.

      25. When there arises a mutual difference about anything in this agreement, the matter shall he referred for a decision to Allah and Muhammad (S.A.W.).

      26. After the treaty, it shall be obligatory on the Jews to render financial assistance to the Muslims when they are at war with an enemy.

      27. The Jews of Bani Auf, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall he regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      28. The Jews of Bani An-Najjar, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall he regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      29. The Jews of Bani Al-Harts, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      30. The Jews of Bani Sa'ida, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      31. The Jews of Bani Hashm, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      32. The Jews of Bani Al-Aus, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      33. The Jews of Bani Sa'alaba, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      34. The Jews of Bani Jafna, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      35. The Jews of Bali Al Shotaiba, who are a party to this agreement and are the supporters of the Muslims, shall adhere to their religion and the Muslims to theirs. Excepting religious matters, the Muslims and the Jews shall be regarded as belonging to a single party. If anyone from amongst them commits an outrage or breaks promise or is guilty of a crime, he shall deserve punishment for his crime.

      36. The subordinate branches of the above mentioned tribes shall have the same rights as are enjoyed by the original branches.

      37. None of the treaty makers shall take any military action, without the permission of Muhammad (S.A.W.).

      38. No hindrance shall be created in the requital or avenging of an injury or a blow. Whoever commits breach of promise, shall deserve punishment for it and whoever abides most faithfully by this agreement, Allah will help him.

      39. If a third community wages war against the Muslims and Jews treaty makers, they will have to fight unite. They shall help each other mutually and there shall be mutual goodwill and faithfulness. The Jews shall bear their expenses of war and the Muslims their expenses.

      40. It is incumbent on the parties to the agreement to treat each other sincerely and to wish each other well. None shall subject the other to oppression and injustice and the oppressed shall be helped.

      41. The Jews shall share the expenses along with the Muslims as long as they fight jointly.

      42. The plain of Yasrab, which is surrounded by hills, shall be a haram ( hunting, cutting trees and wrong doings is forbidden ) for the treaty makers.

      43. The same treatment shall be meted out to a refugee, to which a person giving the refuge is entitled, he shall not be harmed. A refugee shall abide by this agreement and he shall not he permitted to break promise.

      44. Nobody shall be provided a refuge without the permission of the people of that place.

      45. If there is any occurrence or difference of opinion amongst the treaty makers, which might result in a breach of peace, the matter shall be referred, for a decision, to Allah and Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.). Allah shall be with him, who abides most by the treaty.

      46. None shall provide protection to the Quraish of Mecca or any of their helpers.

      47. If Yasrab (Madina) is invaded, the Muslims and the Jews both shall put up a joint defense.

      48. If the Muslims make a peace treaty with some one, the Jews shall abide by it. And if the Jews make peace with some body, it shall be obligatory on the Muslims to extend similar cooperation to the Jews. However, in the case of a religious war of a party, it shall not be the responsibility of the other party to cooperate in it.

      49. In the case of an invasion of Madina, every party will have to defend the part which is in front of it.

      50. The helpers of the Aus tribe shall have the same rights, as are enjoyed by the parties to this treaty, provided they too show their loyalty. Whoever adheres to this treaty most, Allah is his supporter and helper.

      51. If anyone of the parties to this treaty has to go out of Madina on account of the exigency of war, it shall be entitled to peace and protection. And whoever stays in Madina, shall also be entitled to peace. Neither shall anybody be oppressed nor shall breach of promise be permissible for him. Whoever will respect this agreement with his heart and will abide by it, Allah and His Prophet (S.A.W.) are his protectors.

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2. PACT WITH THE TRIBE OF JUHAINA
In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

      1. The life and property of the Juhaina tribe shall be safe.
      2. Whoever commits an outrage on them or invades them, they (Juhaina) shall be helped against him.
      3. However, whatever trouble or war takes place amongst their kith and kin or if it concerns their religious affairs, help therein shall not be necessary.
      4. The good and Allah-fearing people living near these people, shall be entitled to the same rights as are admissible to sine.'


3. SECOND INJUNCTION OF THE HOLY PROPHET (S.A.W.) FOR JUHAINA
In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful.

      Whoever from the tribe of Juhaina accepts Islam, says prayers, pays the Zakat, remains subservient to Allah and his Prophet (S.A.W.) and keeps on paying Khums (5%) out of the gains of war and declares his acceptance of Islam and keeps aloof from the non believers; he is in the protection of Allah and His Prophet (S.A.W.).
As regards the pawned property; of the payable loans, only the amount of the principal shall be payable, after (the debtor's) conversion to Islam. Interest on the pawned amount shall stand cancelled. As Zakat on fruit one tenth of the produce shall be payable. Whoever joins these people shall have the same rights and the same terms shall apply to him.

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

4. PACT OF BANU DHAMRA
In the name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful
This writing is from Allah's Prophet Muharnmad (S.A.W.), for Bani Dhamra.

      1 These people shall have the security of life and property.
      2. These people shall be helped against whoever attacks them.
      3. It shall be binding on these people always to help the Prophet (S.A.W.) and whenever the Prophet of Allah sends for their help they shall give help, but assistance in religious wars shall not be essential.
      4. As long as these people adhere to the pact, they shall be assisted.
      5. Allah and His Prophet have a responsibility in this pact.


5. FOR BANI ZUR'A and BANI RAB'A

      1. The life and property of Bani Zur'a have security and peace.
      2. Bani Zur'a and Bani Rah'a shall be assisted against any person who invades them.
      3. But there shall be no interference in their internal conflicts.
      4. The pious and Allah-fearing people living in the vicinity of these tribes shall have the same rights to which the people of these tribes are entitled.


6. PACT OF BANI GHIFAR
In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

      1. Bani Ghifar shall he regarded as from amongst the Muslims. They shall have the same rights as that of the Muslims and Banu Ghifar shall be subject to the same injunctions as are applicable to the Muslims,
      2. Muhammad, the Prophet (S.A.W.) has entered into a pact to safeguard their life and property and the responsibility of Allah and His Prophet is for it.
      3. They shall be helped against such an enemy as invades them outrageously.
      4. It shall be incumbent on these people to give help when it is called for, by the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.). But in religious war each party shall remain impartial.
      5. Whoever contravenes it, this pact shall not stand as an argument (of excuse) for him.


7. TREATY OF HODAIBIYA
In Thy Name of Allah

      1. This is the treaty in which Muhammad (S.A.W.) son of Abdullah has made a compromise with Sohail son of Umar.
      2. There shall be no mutual war for ten years.
      3. During this period, every person belonging to the two parties shall be safe and secure and none shall raise sword against the other.
      4. if any person from amongst the Quraish goes to Madina he shall be sent back, but if any Muslim goes to Mecca he shall not be sent back.
      5. The tribes of Arabia would be free to enter into treaty from the side of either of the two parties.
      6. The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days.
      7. They shall not come back armed and shall bring with them swords only, but these shall not be kept out of scabbards and the scabbards kept in bags.

Note:
This treaty is an outstanding example of the Holy Prophet's extreme caution to fulfil promises. The treaty was in the process of being written, when Abu Jundal son of Sobail, who had accepted Islam, and as a punishment thereof, his father imprisoned him, escaped from the prison and appeared before the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in fetters and requested that he should be rescued from the tyranny of the Quraish. The companions were horrified to see his condition. But honoring the treaty the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) sent him back to the Quraish.


8. PACT OF BANI GHADAYA
In the name of Allah, The Compassionate, the Merciful.
From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah, To the Jews of Bani Ghadaya.

      1. Responsibility in respect of the Jews of Ghadaya assumed.
      2. Jaziya ( the defense tax ) has been laid down for these people.
      3. These people shall not rise against the Prophet in any way.
      4. These people shall not be exiled from their homes.
      5. Nothing shall render this pact void.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

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9. PACT OF NAJRAN
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
This pact of Muhammad (S.A.W.), Prophet of Allah is for the people of Najran.

      1. Although Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) had the power to take a share from their produce, gold, silver, weapons and slaves, he treated the people generously and leaving aside all these things, he fixed for them two thousand hullas of the value of one Auqia each annually. One thousand (to be supplied) in the month of Rajab and one thousand in the month of Safar.(every six months)
      2. Each hulla shall be of the value of one Auqia and whichever is of more or less value, shall be accounted for accordingly.
      3. If instead of hullas, something like armours or horses or riding camels are given it shall be accepted in accordance with its evaluation.
      4. It shall be obligatory on the people of Najran to arrange for the stay of my workers. But they will have to pay taxes within one month. They should not be made to stay for more than a month.
      5. If due to a rebellion in Yemen we have to wage war, the people of Najran will have to lend 30 armours, 20 horses and 30 camels. If any of the animals are lost, the people of Najran shall be provided substitutes.
      6. The lives of the people of Najran and its surrounding area, their religion, their land, property, cattle and those of them who are present or absent, their messengers and their places of worship are under the protection of Allah and guardianship of His Prophet. Their present state shall neither be interfered with, nor their rights meddled with, nor their idols deformed. No Usquf. (Bishop) Rahib or Waqa, shall be removed from his office. The intention being that no change in whatever state every one is, shall be made (status quo shall be maintained).
      7. Neither the people shall be punished for any past crime or murder, nor shall they be compelled to do military service. Neither shall Ushr (10% tax on produce) be imposed on them nor any army shall enter their area.
      8. If any one of the people of Najran demands his rights, justice shall be done between the plaintiff and respondent. Neither oppression shall be allowed to be perpetrated on them, nor shall they be permitted to oppress any one.
      9. Whoever from the people of Najran takes interest after the conclusion of the pact, shall be excluded from my assurance.
      10. No one from the people of Najran shall be implicated in the crime of someone else.
      11. Whatever has been written in this pact, Allah and Muhammad His Prophet (S.A.W.) are guarantors for it unless there is an order from Allah in this connection and as long as the people of Najran remain faithful and adhere to the conditions which have been made for them, except that some one compels them to do otherwise.'

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

Note:
.. Hulla is a kind of Arabian dress, comprising two sheets, which can cover the entire body of a man


10. PACT OF SAQEEF (TAIF)
In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the Merciful.

      1. This writing of Muhammad (S.A.W.) the Prophet of Allah, is for Saqeef.
      2. Whatever has been written in this deed, its responsibility is that of Allah Who is One and does not share His Powers with anybody, and of Prophet Muhamamd (S.A.W.) son of Abdullah.
      3. The valley of Saqeef has been declared as Haram. The cutting of the wild thorny trees thereof, hunting therein, oppression, theft, and evil actions in it are all haram (strictly prohibited).
      4. Saqeef has the greatest right to Wuj. ` Neither army shall pass through the land of Taif, nor shall a Muslim go there and eject these people from there. These people may do whatever they like in Taif and its valley and construct whatever building they like.
      5. The people of Taif shall be exempt from Ushr, Zakat and Military aid. There shall be no coercion, in so far as their life and property is concerned.
      6. These people shall be regarded as a group of the Muslims. They can therefore move amongst the Muslims without any restriction.
      7. If someone is taken prisoner from amongst the people of Taif, they shall have the right to settle the case.
      8. Whatever debt of the people of Taif may be due for payment on a pawned article and whatever debt on a pawned article may be payable till after the Ukaz season, should be paid by Ukaz. Allah has no responsibility regarding interest.
      9. In the books of the people of Taif whatever debts are due for receipt till the time of their acceptance of Islam, they shall be in their right to receive them.
      10. If an article belonging to the people of Taif held in trust, is destroyed by the trustee, it shall be caused to be returned to the owner.
      11. The people of Saqeef who are not present here shall have the same safeguards and rights as are admissible to those present here. Whatever property they have in Layya, shall be secure like wuj.
      12. Similarly whoever is their partner in trade or their helper, shall have the same rights.
      13. If someone commits a financial or physical excess or outrage on the people of Saqeef, all the Muslims shall help Saqeef against the offender.
      14. Anybody whose entry into the area is not desired, shall not enter it.
      15. These people can construct places for buying and selling in front of their houses.
      16. A ruler for Saqeef shall be appointed from amongst them. Accordingly, Bani Malik and Bani Akhlaf shall have their own Amirs.
      17. The people of Saqeef who will irrigate the gardens of Quraish, shall have right to half of the produce.
      18. No interest shall be charged on the pawned articles. If they are in a position to pay the amount of pawn, they should pay it. If they are not able to pay immediately, they should pay up to the Jamadi-ul-Oola of the next year. And one whose time is up and does not pay, he has no doubt turned it into an interest transaction.
      19. If the people of Saqeef are in debt, the amount of principal only shall be paid to the creditor.
      20. If they have amongst them a prisoner whom his master sold away, the transaction shall be regular. If he was not sold, his ransom shall be 6 she-camels, which can be given in two installments.
      21. Only a person purchasing an article, shall have the right of its sale.

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

Note: As in the present day, Taif was the summer resort of the wealthy Quraish. Being five thousand feet


11. PACT OF AKBAR BIN ABDUL QAIS
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah, To Akbar bin Abdul Qais

      1. In the days of ignorance, those of them who took part in mischief and riots and the sins they committed, Allah and His Prophet have no responsibility therein. But in future, it shall be obligatory on these people to fulfil their promise.
      2. Neither shall the supply of their provisions and grains be interfered with, nor shall they be harassed at the time of the ripening of fruit.
      3. They shall have the right to the use of the collected rain water.
      4. 'Ula bin Al Hazrami (R.A.A.) shall continue to supervise them on behalf of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). It is obligatory on the people of Bahrain to cooperate with him.
      5. It shall be incumbent on the Muslim army to share with them the goods captured in religious wars and treat them fairly and justly. At the time of religious wars moderation and the middle course of action should be kept in view.
      6. The two parties shall not be entitled to an alteration in this pact. These people shall neither alter any pact or depart from it.
      7. Allah and His Prophet testify to this pact.

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

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LETTERS TO EMPERORS, KINGS, RULERS, VICEGERENTS, GOVERNORS, ETC.

1. LETTER TO NEGUS, KING OF ETHIOPIA
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
From Muhammad (S.A.W.) Prophet of Allah to Negus King of Ethiopia.

      '' I praise Allah, except Whom there is none to be worshipped, who is the Ruler of the world. He is innocent and pure (free from all shortcomings). He gives refuge and sustains all. I do admit that Isa (Jesus)(A.S.) son of Mariam (Mary) was the soul from Allah and His word (Order) he was infused to Mariam, who was clean and proof against evil. And Isa (A.S.) was born of Mariam. Allah created him from His soul and breath in the same manner as He created Adam (A.S.). I invite you towards Allah the One who has no associate. Believe in Him and join me in obedience to Him. Follow me and accept my prophethood because I am the Messenger of Allah. I have wished you well in conveying the message of Allah in all sincerity. It is up to you to accept my sympathetic advice. Extend the same invitation to your subjects. I am sending my cousin Jaffer (R.A.A.) with the other Muslims. When they reach you treat them hospitably by setting aside the vanity and pride of a ruler. Peace be on him, who followed the right path.''

Note: As mentioned earlier, after the Holy Prophet began to preach Islam, the Quraish became the bitterest enemies of Islam. In the beginning they taunted, teased and maltreated the Muslims. But by and by their opposition took the shape of tyranny. Their treatment of the Muslims, particularly of the poorer ones was so brutal, that they felt extremely unsafe in Mecca and feared annihilation at the hands of the Quraish. At that stage, (6th year before Hijri i.e. 614 A.D.) the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) allowed the Muslims to temporarily migrate to Ethiopia, as he expected a good treatment by the King of Ethiopia. The Muslims began to migrate to the neighboring country of Ethiopia. This continued till the famous Migration of the Holy Prophet, after which the migrants began to return to Madina. The last caravan returned from Ethiopia in 7th Hijri, about 629 A.D. When the second Caravan went to Ethiopia, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) addressed a letter to the King of Ethiopia. The Quraish could not tolerate that the Muslims should live in peace even in Ethiopia. They sent a delegation to the Negus and pointed out to him that the Muslims had a strange faith which was altogether new and requested that the Muslims should be sent back. The King enquired from the Muslims about their beliefs. On that occasion Jaffer (R.A.) made a very impressive speech, saying, '' They were an extremely ignorant and pagan nation who worshipped self made idols. Debauchery, cruelty and eating the dead was their way of life, but Allah sent a Prophet (S.A.W.) who changed their lives altogether. He admonished them to worship Allah only and to regard Him as their Master. He preached to them always to be truthful and not to misappropriate a trust, treat neighbors kindly, avoid bloodshed and all that Allah has prohibited. Worship Allah the One, observe fasts and pay Zakat. This was the crime for which their country men forced them to leave their hearths and homes and they had to take refuge in Ethiopia.''
The King of Ethiopia was highly moved by the speech and clearly announced that he would not allow such pious people to be tyrannized. The Muslims, thereafter, always had a deep regard for Ethiopia and never did they think of attacking that country. They conquered big countries like Iran, but never touched the neighboring Ethiopia.


10. LETTER TO ABU SUFYAN

Received your letter.
      '' I know that you have ever been steeped in pride and arrogance against Allah the Supreme. You have mentioned of an attack to be made on Madina with a valiant army which is bent on laying waste Madina. Let it be clear to you that this depends on the Will of Allah! If He will so wish, He could deprive you of the power even to utter the names of Lat and Uzza. You are amazed that I did not know the ditch method (for defense). You should know that this method has been made known to me by Allah because your wrath and rage has reached such a point that you are bent on dilapidating Madina. You should know that far from your empty hopes being realized, time has now come when Lat and Uzza, Manat and Naela are shattered to pieces.''

Note: When the Muslims, due to the unbearable oppression migrated to Madina, the Quraish started preparation to invade the City so that the Muslims should not stay in peace. In the 2nd Hijri they invaded with one thousand strong army, whereas the Muslims numbered only 313.
The combat took place at Badr. The Quraish incurred heavy losses and laid down arms. All their famous and brave leaders were killed. The second battle was fought at Uhud in which the Muslims suffered heavily due to their not complying with the orders of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). The combat was however indecisive. In the 5th Hijri, the Quraish collected a huge army of 10 thousand which included the Jews of Khyber also. This time they hoped to crush the Muslims in the very first attack. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) had had trenches dug in the north of Madina and thus cut off the route of the Quraish. The latter were totally upset to see the trenches. Abu Sufyan who was highly enraged wrote a threatening letter to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), in which he said that his big army would totally devastate Madina. The above letter of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was in reply thereto. The Quraish besieged Madina for several weeks, but could not capture it. One day a strong and violent wind blew which uprooted the tents of the Quraish. Their camels and horses ran away and their cauldrons upturned. The result was that the Quraish were highly depressed and their courage gave way. They lost hope of a victory and left the battle field during the night. This was the last attack of the Quraish on Madina.


3. SECOND LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
From Muhammad (S.A.W.) the Prophet of Allah to Negus, King of Ethiopia.

      '' Peace be on him who follows the guidance. I praise Allah Who alone is to be worshipped. He is the Master of the entire universe. He is Sublime. Only He is the haven of peace and security. I testify that Isa (Jesus) son of Mariam (Mary) is the spirit of Allah and His word, which He communed to Mariam (Mary) the pious and thus she became the mother of Allah's Prophet Isa (A.S.). Thus Allah created him from His spirit and infused it into Mariam just as He made Adam (A.S.). Now I invite you to accept the obedience, sympathy and love of Allah Who is One and Who is without an associate. You should follow me and should believe in the message of Allah which I have brought. I call you and your army towards Allah Who is worthy of all respect and esteem. I have thus discharged my duty of conveying His message and advice. You should accept it. May peace be on the followers of the guidance.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

Note: As Negus continued to listen to the holy message, he was being influenced by it. As soon as the holy text was over, he kissed the letter with extreme fondness and placed it over his head. He sent the following reply:

To Muhammad, Prophet of Allah. May peace be on him.
From As'hama, the Negus.

      '' May peace be on you 0 Prophet of Allah! May blessings and favors of Allah be on you. Allah, except Whom there is none worthy of worship, Who has shown me the way of Islam and has guided me. 0 Prophet of Allah! I had the honor of seeing your esteemed letter. Whatever you have written about Isa Jesus (A.S.) I swear by the Allah, Lord of earth and Heaven, that Isa (A.S.) is nothing more than that. I have well understood all these things which you have conveyed to me. Your cousin and his companions are my close companions. I bear evidence that you are a true Prophet of Allah. I have taken bai'at (oath of allegiance to Allah and His Prophet) at the hand of your cousin, for the sake of Allah and have become a slave of Islam. 0 Allah's Prophet! I send my son Arha to you. If you will so order, I will present myself to you. May peace and blessings of Allah be on you.''


4. THIRD LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA
In the name o f Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

      '' May peace be on you.
You treated us nicely. We have complete trust in you. The thing we had hoped from you has been realized and are safe and sound from the thing we had feared. There is no capability (to do a thing) except from Allah.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

Note: The main object in sending the letter was to call back the refugees to Madina. The Negus is stated to have kept the holy letters in an ivory casket and said that as long as the holy letters were there, the people of Ethiopia should be safe and secure.


5. LETTER TO HERACLES CAESAR
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful
From Muhammad, who is the servant of Allah and His Prophet to Heracles Caesar.

      '' Peace be on him, who follows the right path.
After this, I invite you to the fold of Islam. Therefore, if you desire security accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allah shall reward you doubly and if you refuse to do so, the responsibility for the transgression of the entire nation shall be yours.
0 people of the Book! Leaving aside all matters of differences and disputes, agree on a thing which is equally incontrovertible both as you and we are concerned and it is that we should not worship any one else except Allah. And we should neither associate any one else with Him, nor regard any one else except Allah as our Sustainer. If you deny this, you must know that we believe in Oneness of Allah, in all circumstances.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad


6. LETTER TO KHUSRO PERWEZ, EMPEROR OF FARS
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah to Kisra, King of Fars

      '' May peace be on him who follows the guidance, believes in Allah and his Prophet. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, who is alone and without an associate and Muhammad is His Servant and Prophet. Allah has made me a Prophet and sent me for the entire world, in order that I may infuse the fear of Allah in every living person. Accept Islam and be secure. If you refuse, the sins of all the Zoroastrians shall be your responsibility.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad


7. LETTER TO HURMUZ
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah, to Hurmuz

      '' I invite you towards Islam. Accept Islam in order that you may get security in this world and the next.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

Note: The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) while addressing a letter to Khusro Perwez, had also sent a letter to Hurmuz,, who belonged to the Iranian royal family and was the maternal uncle of Sheroya. Although at that time he did not pay heed to the Holy letter, subsequently he embraced Islam.


8. LETTER TO THE VICEGERENT OF EGYPT
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
From Muhammad Servant of Allah and His Prophet To Muqawqis, Vicegerent of Egypt

      '' Peace be on him who has taken the right course. Thereafter, I invite you to accept Islam. Therefore, if you want security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allah the sublime shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, responsibility for the transgression of the entire nation shall be yours.
0 people of the Book! leaving aside all matters of difference and dispute, agree on a matter which is equally consistent between you and us and it is that we should not worship anyone except Allah and that we should neither associate anyone with Him, nor make anyone else as our god.
If you refuse it, you must know that we, in all circumstances believe in Oneness of Allah.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

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13. TO WA'IL BIN HUJAR
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
From Muhammad. Prophet of Allah to Wa'il Bin Hujar

      '' As you have embraced Islam, I therefore, let all your property and forts remain in your ownership. You shall as usual own them all. However, you will have to give one tenth of the produce ('Ushr). The decision regarding the division shall be jointly made by two judges. Steps will be taken to see that oppression of no sort is committed against you, till the establishment of the rule of the religion. Allah's Prophet and all the Muslims are your helpers in this matter.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

11. TO THE CHIEFS OF `ABAHILA, HADAR MAUT

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah To Chiefs of Abahila

      '' You should keep saying prayers and paying Zakat. It is obligatory and necessary for every one from whom Zakat is due, to pay Zakat on the cattle, which have been grazing in meadows for the major part of a year.
As regards Zakat, it is not right to cheat the collector in order to escape Zakat or get it reduced.
It is also your responsibility and obligation to help the Islamic army with provisions. And for every group of ten men, to provide a camel-load of grains is essential.
The person who hides his wealth shall be saving his money in this manner, he like a usurer who lives on interest. ''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

In another order the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) stated the rate of Zakat and punishment for lechery. '' Its text was as follows:
12. In the name o f Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

      1. An average goat as Zakat per 40 goats is essential.
      2. On the material which is obtained from the mines, one fifth should be paid.
      3. A person who violates the modesty of a virgin, shall be given 100 lashes and exiled for one year. And the person who is guilty of adultery with a married woman, should be stoned to death.
      4. There must not be a shame or indolence (in executing) whatever Allah has made obligatory.
      5. Every intoxicant is forbidden.
      6. Wa'il Bin Hujar has been appointed as Governor of all the people of Hadar Maut.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

14. TO THE CHIEFS OF YEMAN

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah, To Shuraih beel and Hans, etc.

      '' Your messenger reached here with Khums (one-fifth) of the benefit of the Holy wars, sent by you. Allah has fixed `Ushr on the produce of rain-red land and fruits of gardens. But `ushr on the fields and gardens which are irrigated, is half (20th part or 5%) provided in both the cases, the quantity of the produce comes to five wasaq (about two quintals of the present day).

The rate of Zahat on camels and goats is:
      1. On every five camels up to 24 grazing on meadows, one goat be given.

      2. From 25 to 35, one binte makhaz (the young one of camel, which has entered the second year of life) be given

      3. From 36 to 45, one binte laboon ( the young camel which has entered the third year) be given

      4. From 46 to 60, one hiqqa (he/she camel which has entered fourth year) be given

      5. From 61 to 90, one Jiz'a (one he/she camel which has entered fifth year) be given

      6. From 91 to 120, two hiqqas be given

      7. On more than 120 camels, one binte laboon on every 40 additional camels and on every 50 additional camels one hiqqa is fixed.

      8. On the goats grazing on meadows, Zakat from 40 to 120 goats, is one goat.

      9. From 121 to 200, two goats

      10. From 201 to 300, three goats be given and likewise on every 100, one goat be added.

      11. Useless, deformed and old cattle should not be given in Zakat.

      12. To avoid Zakat, the cattle of two persons should neither be combined nor separated

      13. On every 5 auqias of silver, the obligatory Zakat is 5 dirham and on less than 5 auqias, there no Zakat.

      14. On more than five auqias, Zakat is one dirham on every 40 dirhams.

      15. On gold, on every 40 dinars, one dinar is obligatory

      16.It is not admissible for Muhammad (S.A.W.) and his kins to accept Sadaqa (charity) and Zakat. It is for the poor travelers, etc. only.

      17. To associate someone with Allah, to kill a sinless Muslim, to avoid Jihad (holy war), to disobey parents, to falsely accuse a sinless person, to learn magic, to take interest and to grab the property of an orphan, are the major sins in the eyes of Allah.

      18. None should touch the Quran without cleansing himself.

      19. The Umra to the House of Allah, is a smaller Hajj.

      20. There can be no divorce before nikah (formal marriage). In order to set a slave free it is essential first to purchase him.

      21. Prayers should not be offered in a cloth which cannot cover the entire body. It is not permissible (for a woman) to say prayers, after tying her hair, in the shape of a hump.

      22. Whoever will murder a momin (true believer) qisas (death punishment) shall be imposed on him, but if the heirs of the murdered person agree to accept that (blood money), 100 camels shall be given as compensation for the murder. Compensation for eyes, lips, backs, tongues and private parts, is the same.

      23. Compensation for a foot is 50 camels. The same is the compensation for mamuma (the wound of skull which penetrates to the membrane of the brain). Compensation for jaefa (wound of belly) is one third. The compensation of the wound, inflicted with a stick is 15 camels and that for the fingers of hand or foot, is 10 camels for each finger. And for each tooth, the compensation is 5 camels. Compensation for muzeha (the wound of head, which exposes skull) is also 5 camels.

In the ' qisas ' of a woman, the murderer whether man or woman, shall be put to death.

This is the rate of compensation for the common men. A wealthy person will have to pay one thousand dinars, as compensation.''

Allah's Seal -- Prophet Muhammad

Note: It has been mentioned elsewhere that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) had sent 'Amar Bin Hazm Ansari as Governor of Yemen. At that time he sent the above injunctions to his administrators Shuraih-beel and Haris.
      1. Auqia = 40 dirhams and a dirham is about 1/10th of an ounce.
      2. Dinar, a gold coin, is equivalent of the present day pound.

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Muhammad the Prophet of Allah.

This Sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat

"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I don't know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (Interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived...
Beware of Satan, for your safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have right over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and comitted helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to commit adultery.
O People, listen to me in earnest, whorship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to. You know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. You are all equal. Nobody has superiority over other except by piety and good action.
Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not astray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me direcly. Be my witness oh Allah that I have conveyed your message to your people."



The Farewell Sermon.

      '' The messenger of Allah gave us a SERMON by which our hearts were filled with fear, and tears came to our eyes. We said : "O Messenger of Allah, it is as though this is a farewell SERMON, so counsel us." He said: "I counsel you to fear Allah and to give absolute obedience even if a slave becomes your leader. Verily he among you who lives [long] will see great controversy, so you must keep to my Sunnah and to the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khalifahs, cling to them stubbornly. Beware of newly invented matters, for every invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray, and every going astray is in Hell-fire. ''

Reporters :
Related by Abu Dawud and Al-Tirmithi, who said that it was a fine and true Hadith.

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